228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime
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Despite Together Forever (Lovers Leap 7 Remix) - Rick Astley - Greatest Hits immediacy of qualia, it must be remembered that they result from at least one translation: that of a physical stimulus into action potential frequencies.
And it is the series of action potentials along particular pathways 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime to the visual cortex that is the proximal cause, as it were, of the 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime. Some authors even speak of a second translation in which these encoded impulses are converted into qualia.
But that position is already controversial, because it is based on a certain philosophical conception of qualia. Another philosophical presupposition, a materialist one in this caseestablishes an equivalence between a qualium and a particular physiochemical state in the brain, somewhat the same way that heat corresponds to molecular kinetic energy or that visible light corresponds to certain radiant electromagnetic energy.
Some authors, such as the philosopher Daniel Dennett 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetimeeven try to convince us that in the end, what we call qualia do not actually exist. For example, some authors have stressed the private nature of consciousness, which is accessible only from the viewpoint of the conscious subjectwhereas physical phenomena are accessible to any observer.
Others have stressed the ineffability of consciousness: it cannot be effectively explained in terms of language, unlike physical phenomena, whose properties can be accurately expressed in terms such Torso / Gack - Human Disease mass or temperature. Just as we humans, with our sense of sight, perceive not electromagnetic waves in the visible-light spectrum, but rather illuminated objects, bats may perceive their returning echoes not as sounds, but directly as objects.
That, however, is something we will never know. And this is exactly what is meant by the subjective side of conscious experience, compared with its objective side.
A related term, qualia the plural of qualium or qualemore specifically designates all of our direct impressions of things. Qualia are the immediate experiential aspects of sensations—to offer some crude examples, the particular redness of the red of an apple, or the coldness of ice.
Some authors even extend the concept of qualia to our most basic thoughts and drives. One of the most famous of these experiments was proposed by philosopher Frank Jackson in Everything that she knows about colour vision, 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime has learned from the books, printed in black ink on white pages, that she has been reading since she was a little girl.
Thus Marie has come to know all of the relevant facts about how humans perceive colours. In other words, even an extremely accurate knowledge of the Sail Along Silvry Moon - Bob Parker Et Son Orchestre*, Max And The Maxies - Patricia and of the neural correlates of subjective consciousness does not appear to give access to the experience itself: what the subject is experiencing as a subject.
At the time that he published his thought experiment, Jackson himself regarded consciousness as an e piphenomenon. But he later came to reject this idea, because if Marie exclaimed when she saw colour for the first time, then this qualium was what caused her exclamation. Since epiphenomenalism does not accept that qualia can affect the physiology of the brain, and since Jackson was convinced that only physical causes can influence the physical world, there was a serious problem in accepting his original metaphor as such.
It would be chauvinistic to make an a priori assertion that only humans can be conscious. For a theory of consciousness to be as general as possible, it must therefore also account for the possibility of non-human consciousness for example, in animals or machines. Some authors believe that the concept of intentionalitya sophisticated way of talking 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime mental representations, might facilitate the development of a general theory of consciousness.
Toward the end of the 19th century, the German philosopher Franz Brentano developed the idea that the essence of mental activity is to be object-directed. For Brentano, all consciousness is consciousness of something. In this sense, language is intentional. But how does our understanding of the thing that is signified by a word enable us to form a mental representation of that thing?
The biological research done during the 20th century discredited the notion of the existence of mental forces with properties distinct from physical forces. Over the course of this century, researchers compiled an impressive volume of data on the neural circuits of the brain and how they function, but never uncovered any sign of the presence of separate mental causes.
Some eminent 20th-century neurobiologists, such as John Eccles and Roger Sperry, defended the idea that the conscious mind was separate from the brain and could sometimes exert an independent influence on its operations.
But now, in the early 21st century, most neurobiologists reject the idea of mental causes separate from the physical world. Perhaps the two schools of philosophy that have had the most to say on this subject are dualism and materialism.
According to substance dualismthe material world does in fact exist, but the subjective aspects of consciousness are of a different nature and constitute the other great substance of which the world is made.
Even so, substance dualism has had a Rendez-vous - Various - Disco Hits Vol. 1 time. As early as the 4th century B. For example, if the human body is a physical machine piloted by a non-physical ghost hiding somewhere inside the human skull, where exactly is that ghost hiding? And is there only one such ghost, or are there many? Who animates the ghost itself, and through what force does this ghost affect the physical world?
In an attempt to retain the advantages of having two separate entities, but avoid the pitfalls of substance dualism, philosophers have developed several variants of dualism.
These include:. The other major school of philosophy that has has something to say about consciousness is materialism. For materialists, the causal relationship between our mental states and our behaviours does not pose any problem, because both are part of the physical world.
A subjective experience such as pain is quite real, but simply consists of the neuronal states that give rise to it. This materialist framework is monistic: it holds that only matter exists.
But within it, there have been two main interpretations about the nature of the mind. It states that matter is a single substance, but can be perceived from two different perspectives. Just as a curve remains a line even though it can be described as concave or convex at any given time, so our psychophysical processes remain the same regardless of whether we are talking about them from a physical standpoint or a mental one.
Just as physicists can speak of light as a wave and a particle simultaneously, we can regard the body and the mind as simply the two sides of the same coin. The age-old distinction between mind and body may therefore have been nothing more than an artifact of perception. Neuropsychoanalysisa movement that tries to combine data from the neurosciences and psychoanalysis to achieve a better understanding of human consciousness, is based on dual-aspect theory.
The second main materialist interpretation of the nature of the mind is psychophysical identity theory. In psychophysical identity theory, unlike in dual-aspect theory, the subjective and objective natures of consciousness cannot be regarded as two different aspects of the same thing, because they are one and the same thing.
In other words, mental states can be completely reduced to physical ones, just as water can be reduced to its chemical formula H 2 0. The problem then, of course, is to explain how the objective and the subjective, the brain and the mind, can be identical when they seem so different. They lead to two variants 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime reductive materialism, one based on identity in the stronger sense and the other on identity in the weaker sense.
Eliminative materialism is even more radical than the two forms of materialism just discussed. Like materialist functionalismeliminative materialism seeks to circumvent the I Want More (Row Row Row The Mix) - Fini Tribe* - I Want More inherent in materialism while accepting its basic premise: that matter is the only thing that exists. They refuse to believe that our subjective vision of colours, for example, is simply identical to the activity of a population of neurons 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime certain areas of the cortex.
At the same time, however, these philosophers do not want to return to dualism. They therefore argue that consciousness is a mystery, and that it is a mystery because our concepts of the mental and physical world are too crude to address the problem of the relationship between the body and the mind in an enlightening way. It is somewhat the same as the reason that monkeys will never perform differential calculus: it would require concepts that are inaccessible to their brains.
In fact, every species has limits to its cognitive abilities, and understanding consciousness may just require some concepts that humans simply cannot access. Some materialists believe that one way to make the identity between consciousness and matter less counterintuitive is to apply new concepts from the cognitive neurosciences to our thinking about the phenomenological aspect of consciousness.
A Microprocessor That Simulates a Synapse. The English mathematician Alan Turing believed that in the relatively near future, scientists would manage to program a computer so as to give it conscious states. To determine when that goal would have been reached, he developed what is now known as the Turing Test.
This test assumes that one is in communication with an entity that one 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime see, through some remote mechanism such as postal mail or e-mail.
The task is to ask this entity questions so as to determine whether it is 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime human or a computer. If the entity is a machine, and it succeeds in fooling you Right - David Bowie - Young Americans thinking that it is human, then it has passed the Turing Test and it can be assumed to have the same conscious states as a human being.
But a number of critics have objected that a computer that passes the Turing Test 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime simply be simulating conscious states in a very sophisticated way. The idea that the essence of human thought is similar to the operation of computers—that it consists of symbolic representations manipulated by logical operations—continues to influence the cognitive sciences, even though this view is less common now than in the s or s. While neuroscientists attempt to understand the operation of human consciousness directly, by analyzing its various componentsartificial intelligence AI researchers attempt to build machines that resemble the human mind as closely as possible.
These researchers hope that if they can succeed in building a machine whose responses can be mistaken for those of a human mind see preceding sidebarthen we may learn what a system must contain in order for a consciousness to emerge from it. The scholars such as WienerShannon, McCulloch, von Foerster, and von Neumann who regularly attended these conferences strongly advocated that they take a multidisciplinary approach, which proved highly productive.
What are now known as the Macy Conferences gave rise to the cybernetics movement. Now defined as the general science of communication and control in natural and artificial systems, cybernetics studies how information circulates.
Many biologists, such as Henri Laborit and Henri Atlanwere greatly influenced by concepts of cybernetics. This new science also quickly found applications in computing, then in its infancy, as well as in what would later become known as artificial intelligence see sidebar.
The cyberneticists were also clearly interested in investigating the complex system par excellence : the human mind. And because they rejected all forms of idealism and shared a strong inclination toward materialismthey quite naturally included the study of the brain in their two approaches to complex systems:.
These two approaches tended to complement rather than contradict one another. They gave rise to the two main currents that developed subsequently in the cognitive sciences: cognitivism and connectionism, respectively.
The computers developed during World War II, though still very slow, were a great source of inspiration for the cognitivist also known as the computational approach. The classic use of the computer as a metaphor for the human mind though we now know its limitations—follow the Tool Module link to the left thus led the cognitivists to believe that the mind translates the components of the external world into internal representations, exactly as a computer does.
This central 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime of cognitivism dominated the cognitive sciences from the mids for almost 20 years.
As Jerry Fodora student of Hilary Putnam, couched the argumentto think is to manipulate symbols, and cognition is nothing more than manipulating symbols the way that computers do. Once mental states had been equated with computer software and the brain with computer hardware, computer simulation and modelling became an ideal means of studying how the human mind operates.
The philosopher John Searle distinguished two positions regarding the possibilities of AI. But Searle dealt this position a harsh blow with his Chinese Room argument. No matter how much computational power they have, they can never create a true intelligence or a genuine consciousness. Cognitivism, inspired by the operation of computers that manipulate symbols without interpreting their meaning, is forced to reduce the brain to a simple syntactic device, and not a semantic one.
Epistemologically speaking, this position is vulnerable to attack from many angles. It was in this context that connectionismthe other major current in the cognitive sciences, developed in the 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime . It is associated with philosophers such as Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter.
In connectionism, mental representations are not discussed in terms of symbols, but instead are analyzed in terms of links among numerous distributed, co-operative, self-organizing agents. 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime Minskywho inspired this approach, thus regards the cognitive system as a society of micro-agents that are capable of solving problems locally. In contrast to the computing analogy used 228th Microcrunk - Deepchild - Lifetime cognitivism, connectionism does not depend on complex algorithms that are executed sequentially, or on a control centre that processes all the information, because the networks of neurons in the brain are considered quite capable of doing without them.
The connectivity of a system thus becomes inseparable from the history of its transformations.
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