Jean-Philippe Rameau, Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin
Label: Telefunken - 6.42336 • Series: Das Alte Werk • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: Germany • Genre: Classical • Style: Baroque
Little is known about Rameau's early years. It was not until the s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony and also in the following years as Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin composer of masterpieces for the harpsichord, which circulated throughout Europe.
He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests today. His debut, Hippolyte et Ariciecaused a great stir and was fiercely attacked by the supporters of Lully's style of music for its revolutionary use of harmony.
Nevertheless, Rameau's pre-eminence in the field of French opera was soon acknowledged, and he was later attacked as an "establishment" composer by those who favoured Italian opera during the controversy known as the Querelle des Bouffons in the s.
Rameau's music had gone out of fashion by the end of the Jean-Philippe Rameau century, and it was not until the 20th that serious efforts were made to revive it. Today, he enjoys renewed appreciation with performances and recordings of his music ever more Köcekce - Oriental Wind - Bazaar. The details of Rameau's life are generally obscure, especially concerning his first forty years, before he moved Jean-Philippe Rameau Paris for good.
He was a secretive man, and even his wife knew nothing of his early life,  which explains the scarcity of biographical information available. Rameau's early years are particularly obscure.
He was born on 25 September in Dijonand baptised the same day. The couple had eleven children five girls and six boysof whom Jean-Philippe was the seventh. Rameau was taught music before he could read or write. He was educated at the Jesuit college at Godrans, but he was not a good pupil and disrupted classes with his singing, later claiming that his passion for opera had begun at the age of twelve.
On his return, he worked as a violinist in travelling companies and then as an organist in provincial cathedrals before moving to Paris for the first time. Inhe moved back to Dijon to take over his father's job as organist in the main church. The contract was for six years, but Rameau left before then and took up similar posts in Lyon and Clermont-Ferrand. During this period, he composed motets for church performance as well as secular cantatas. Rameau took his first tentative steps into composing stage music when the writer Alexis Piron asked him to provide songs for his popular comic plays written for the Paris Fairs.
Four collaborations followed, beginning with L'endriague in ; none of the music has survived. On 25 February Rameau married the year-old Marie-Louise Mangot, who came from a Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin family from Lyon and was a good singer and instrumentalist.
The couple would have four children, two boys and two girls, and the marriage is said to have been a happy one. In spite of his fame as a music theorist, Rameau had trouble finding a post as an organist in Paris. It was not until he was approaching 50 that Rameau decided to embark on the operatic career on which his fame as a composer mainly rests.
It was immediately recognised as the most significant opera to appear in France since the death of Lullybut audiences were split over whether this was a good thing or a bad thing. The two camps, the so-called Lullyistes and the Rameauneurs, fought a pamphlet war over the issue for the rest of the decade. He held the post for 22 years; he was succeeded by Johann Stamitz and You Gotta Be - Various - SummerGroove Gossec.
All these operas of the s are among Rameau's most highly regarded works. The year was a watershed in Rameau's career. He received several commissions from the court for works to celebrate the French victory at the Battle of Fontenoy and the marriage of the Dauphin to Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain. Though best known today as a thinker, Rousseau had ambitions to be a composer.
He had written an opera, Les muses galantes inspired by Rameau's Indes galantesbut Rameau was unimpressed by this musical tribute. Rousseau then claimed Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin two had stolen the credit for the words and music he had contributed, though musicologists have been able to identify almost nothing of the piece as Rousseau's work. Nevertheless, the embittered Rousseau nursed a grudge against Rameau for the rest of his life.
This time, Rameau was accused of being out Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin date and his music too complicated in comparison with the simplicity and "naturalness" of a work like Pergolesi's La serva padrona. The daughter of harpsichord maker Jacques Goermansshe went by the name of Madame de Saint-Aubin, and her opportunistic husband pushed her into the arms of the rich financier.
Rameau pursued his activities as a theorist and composer until his death. He lived with his wife and two of his children in his large suite of rooms in Rue des Bons-Enfants, which he would leave every day, lost in thought, to take a solitary walk in the nearby gardens of the Palais-Royal or the Tuileries. Sometimes he would meet the young writer Chabanonwho noted some of Rameau's disillusioned confidential Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin "Day by day, I'm acquiring more good taste, but I no longer have any genius" and "The imagination is worn out in my old head; it's not wise at this age wanting to practise Jean-Philippe Rameau that are nothing but imagination.
Rameau composed prolifically in the late s and early s. After that, his rate of productivity dropped off, probably due to old age and ill health, although he was still able to write another comic opera, Les Paladinsin At his bedside, he objected to a song sung. His last words were, "What the devil do you mean to sing to me, priest?
You are out of tune. EustacheParis on the same day of his death. While the details of his biography are vague and fragmentary, the details of Rameau's personal and family life are almost completely obscure. Rameau's music, so graceful and attractive, completely contradicts the man's public image and what Canco Del Lladre (Catalan Folk Song) - Clive Carroll - In Concert (DVD) know of his character as described or perhaps unfairly caricatured by Diderot in his satirical novel Le Neveu de Rameau.
Throughout his life, music was his consuming passion. It occupied his entire thinking; Philippe Beaussant calls him a monomaniac. Piron explained that "His heart and soul were in his harpsichord; once he had shut its lid, there was no one home. He had a "loud voice. As a man, he was secretive, solitary, irritable, proud of his own achievements more as a Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin than as a composerbrusque with those who contradicted him, and quick to anger.
His enemies exaggerated his faults; e. In fact, it seems that his thriftiness was the result of long years spent in obscurity when his income was uncertain and scanty rather than part of his character, because he could also be generous.
Furthermore, he gave his daughter Marie-Louise a considerable dowry when she became a Visitandine nun inand he paid a pension to one of his sisters when she became ill. Financial security came late to him, following the success of his stage works and the grant of a royal pension a few months before his death, he was also ennobled and made a knight of the Ordre de Saint-Michel.
But he did not change his way of life, keeping his worn-out clothes, his single pair of shoes, and his old furniture. After his death, it was discovered that he only possessed one dilapidated single-keyboard harpsichord  in his rooms in Rue des Bons-Enfants, yet he also had a bag containing gold louis. Rameau's music is characterised by the exceptional technical knowledge of a composer who wanted above all to be renowned as a theorist of the art.
Nevertheless, it is not solely addressed to the intelligence, and Rameau himself claimed, "I try to conceal art with art. Rameau appeared revolutionary to the Lullyistes, disturbed by the complex harmony of his music; and reactionary to the "philosophes," who only paid attention to its content and who either would not or could not listen to the sound it made.
The incomprehension he received from his contemporaries stopped Rameau from repeating such daring experiments as the second Trio des Parques in Hippolyte et Ariciewhich he was forced to remove after a handful of performances because the singers had been either unable or unwilling to render it correctly.
Rameau's musical works may be divided into four distinct groups,  which differ greatly in importance: a few cantatas ; a few motets for large chorus; some pieces for solo harpsichord or harpsichord accompanied by other instruments; and, finally, Scott Ross - Cembalowerke • Harpsichord Pieces • Pièces De Clavecin works for the stage, to Parallel Twin - Insect Ark - Portal/Well he dedicated the last thirty years of his career almost exclusively.
Like most of his contemporaries, Rameau often reused melodies that had been particularly successful, but never without meticulously adapting them; they are not simple transcriptions. Besides, no borrowings have been found from other composers, although his earliest works show the influence of other music.
Rameau's reworkings of Jean-Philippe Rameau own material are numerous; e. For at least 26 years, Rameau was a professional organist in the service of religious Fool In Love - Various - The Many Sounds Of Albert Hammond, and yet the body of sacred music he composed is exceptionally small and his organ works nonexistent. Judging by the evidence, it was not his favourite field, but rather, simply a way of making reasonable money.
Rameau's few religious compositions are nevertheless remarkable and compare favourably to the works of specialists in the area. Only four motets have been attributed to Rameau with any certainty: Deus noster refugiumIn convertendoQuam dilectaand Laboravi. The cantata was a highly successful genre in the early 平壌の悲しい目をした乙女 / Sad Eyed Lady Of Pyong Yang - Variations Of Sex - My Cock Is Beyond Good And Evil century.
Cantatas were Rameau's first contact with dramatic music. The modest forces the cantata required meant it was a genre within the reach of a composer who was still unknown. Musicologists can only guess at the dates Jean-Philippe Rameau Rameau's six surviving cantatas, and the names of the librettists are unknown. Rameau and Couperin had different styles, and it seems they did not know one another: Couperin was one of the official court musicians; Rameau, fifteen years his junior, achieved fame only after Couperin's death.
Rameau published his first book of harpsichord pieces in Couperin, who waited until before publishing his first "Ordres. But there are also works of pure virtuosity that resemble Scarlatti "Les tourbillons," "Les trois mains" as well as pieces that reveal the experiments of a theorist and musical innovator "L'enharmonique," "Les Cyclopes"which had a marked influence on DaquinRoyer and Jacques Duphly.
Rameau's suites are grouped in the traditional way, by key. Rameau's second and third collections appeared in and After these he composed only one piece for the harpsichord, the eight-minute "La Dauphine" ofwhile the very short "Les petits marteaux" c. Adopting a formula successfully employed by Mondonville a few years earlier, Rameau fashioned these pieces differently from trio sonatas in that the harpsichord is not simply there as basso continuo to accompany melody instruments violin, flute, viol but as equal partner in "concert" with them.
Rameau claimed that this music would be equally satisfying played on the harpsichord alone, but the claim is not wholly convincing because he took the trouble to transcribe five of them himself, those where the lack of other instruments would show the least.
After Rameau dedicated himself mostly to opera. On a strictly musical level, 18th-century French Baroque opera is richer and more varied than contemporary Italian opera, especially in the place given to choruses and dances but also in the musical continuity that arises from the respective relationships between the arias and the recitatives.
Another essential difference: whereas Italian opera gave a starring role to female sopranos and castratiFrench opera had no use for the latter. The Italian opera of Rameau's day opera seriaopera buffa was essentially Hollow Hills - Bauhaus - Press The Eject And Give Me The Tape into musical sections da capo arias, duets, trios, etc.
It was during the latter that the action progressed while the audience waited for the next aria; on the other hand, the text of the arias was almost entirely buried beneath music whose chief aim was to show off the virtuosity of the Sea Of Machines (Instrumental) - Ayreon - The Source (CD, Album, Album). Nothing of the kind is to be found in French opera of the day; since Lully, the text had to remain comprehensible—limiting certain techniques such as the vocalisewhich was reserved for special words such as gloire "glory" or victoire "victory".
A subtle equilibrium existed between the more and the less musical parts: melodic recitative on the one hand and arias that were often closer to arioso on the other, alongside virtuoso "ariettes" in the Italian style. This form of continuous music prefigures Wagnerian drama even more than does the "reform" opera of Gluck. Rameau was the greatest ballet composer of all times. The genius of his creation rests on one hand on his perfect artistic permeation by folk-dance types, on the other hand on the constant preservation of living contact with the practical requirements of the ballet stage, which prevented an estrangement between the expression of the body from the spirit of absolute music.
After the interval of tohe became the official court musician, and for the most part, composed pieces intended to entertain, with plenty of dance music Jean-Philippe Rameau sensuality and an idealised pastoral atmosphere.
His Zoroastre was first performed in According to one of Rameau's admirers, Cuthbert Girdlestone, this opera has a distinctive place in his works: "The profane passions of hatred and jealousy are rendered more intensely [than in his other works] and with a strong sense of reality. Unlike Lully, who collaborated with Philippe Quinault on almost all his operas, Rameau rarely worked with the same librettist twice. Many Rameau specialists have regretted that the collaboration with Houdar de la Motte never took place, and that the Samson project with Voltaire came to nothing because the librettists Rameau did work with were second-rate.
Not one of his librettists managed to produce a libretto on the same artistic level as Rameau's music: the plots were often overly complex or unconvincing.
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