Cor Mixt Samedan / Chapella Famiglia Erni, Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina
The speakers of Kataputi referred to themselves as the Katapaki. The area had been agricultural for millennia, and had developed intensive rice cultivation and animal husbandry along with the beginnings of urban culture.
All other consonants are transcribed as in IPA or the Latin-text equivalent. Syllable structure is C C V. Kataputi has a predictable dynamic stress based on morae. Syllables with short vowels are monomoraic, while those with long vowels are bimoraic; a strong dynamic stress falls on the penultimate mora, with the effect that the final syllable is stressed if it contains a long vowel, and the penultimate syllable is stressed otherwise.
Secondary stress is applied to alternating morae before the primary stress, so long vowels always carry either primary or secondary stress. If a long vowel is stressed, it is pronounced the same whether the Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina is underlyingly on the first or second mora.
Inflectional affixes usually change the Cor Mixt Samedan / Chapella Famiglia Erni of stress, although there are some exceptions, which are Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina in the grammar.
Function words and particles are usually unstressed. All of these are quite similar and mutually intelligible.
Nonetheless there are some significant variations in phonetic detail between dialects; the Eastern dialects in particular are somewhat divergent.
Kataputi morphology is fusional and mostly suffixing. A common feature is stem gradation — different forms of a root word used with different inflections. Three morphophonological processes are important in Kataputi: stem gradationassimilationand mutation. Stem gradation of nouns and verbs is a common process linked to declension and conjugation, and is dealt with in the appropriate sections; assimilation and mutation occur less frequently, and are both due to a number of Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina causes.
Kataputi permits only a limited number of consonant cluster forms, and only in syllable onsets, but clusters can occur due Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina elision in morphological processes such as in noun declension. Prefixes and compounding can trigger one of three types of consonant mutation. The changes that occur are listed in the following table. If a consonant is unchanged by a given mutation, the space is left blank. Mutation I affects consonants even if they are the first element of a cluster; the second element then assimilates in voicing if it is a stop or sibilant.
Nouns are inflected for three cases absolutive, ergative, and oblique and three numbers singular, paucal, and plural. These are indicated in the tables below by the letters SIand W. A noun with no intermediate grade uses the strong grade Suffer In Love Then Kill Yourself - Vaveyla - Abandoned Like A Lighthouse, and a noun with only one grade uses this for all forms.
Declension I is the most common, accounting for about two thirds of nouns. Possession in Kataputi is indicated by prefixes. Many nouns are inalienably possessed; these may not occur without a possessive prefix.
A few nouns have more than one meaning, distinguished by whether they are inalienably possessed. All Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina prefixes trigger consonant mutation. The third Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina masculine singular triggers Mutation II, the third person Redneck Love Song - The Jonee Earthquake Band - Tomorrow May Rain singular triggers Mutation III, and all other possessive prefixes trigger Mutation I.
The distinctions made in possessive prefixes are the same as those made in pronouns. Morning Sun - Moses (66) - Moses Live prefixes are as follows:. Kataputi has personal pronouns for the first, second, and third person, and also distinguishes inclusivity in the first person and gender in the third. All of these have a full set of pronouns distinguishing the three cases absolutive, ergative, oblique and three numbers singular, paucal, plural - except for the 1 st person inclusive, which has a dual rather than a singular.
Kataputi has a small number of correlatives; most of these are not actually pronouns, but they are included here for completeness. Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina are inflected for five moods indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, and conditional and distinguish imperfective from perfective aspect. There is also an attributive: a subordinated form used as an adjective. Like some nouns, many common verbs have two or three stem grades, indicated as SIW in the tables below.
A verb with no intermediate grade uses the strong Cor Mixt Samedan / Chapella Famiglia Erni instead, and a verb with only one grade uses this for all forms. The citation form for a verb is the imperfective indicative which is always the same as the strong stem. The Cor Mixt Samedan / Chapella Famiglia Erni two are suffixes. The allomorphs after the slashes are used after the imperative, or after the imperfective indicative of a Declension II or III verb.
These affixes do not affect the stress position. Both of the antipassive and relativising suffixes may occur on the same verb, but the relativiser, where present, must always be the last affix. Numerals are indeclinable, but ordinals can be formed by adding the genitive postposition zi. A range of suffixes are used to derive new words in Kataputi. These are sensitive to the stem alternations of noun and verb roots, with each affix taking a particular grade; however, newly derived nouns themselves tend not to undergo alternations as this would be likely to create ambiguity.
Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina with inflectional suffixes, any final short vowel in the strong or intermediate grade of an Declension I noun or Conjugation I verb is deleted when a derivational suffix is added, unless this would create an illegal cluster.
Noun phrases comprise a head noun and any number of modifiers; all modifiers precede the head noun. Verbs used as adjectives take the attributive suffix. The absolutive case is Moonlight Shadows - Various - Sonido De Valencia Volumen 2 most unmarked, and is used for the subject of an intransitive sentence or the object of a transitive one.
The oblique case is used for the indirect object of a sentence, governs postpositions, and forms appositives. Possession can be expressed in two ways: using the possessive prefixes, or the genitive postposition zi.
A genitive construction precedes all other modifiers in a noun phrase. However, for inalienably possessed nouns, the prefix must be used even where there is also a genitive. When the possessor is a pronoun, a genitive expression can be used with a possessive prefix where required to emphasise it:.
Aspect marks Escape - Various - Freeze - Finnish Electro-Industrial Documentary an action is ongoing imperfective or completed perfectivebut says nothing about tense:. The use of the moods is less straightforward. There are five main moods plus the attributive; this section gives an overview of how they work.
The indicative is the least marked form, and is used in main clauses where the action is well-established to have occurred. The subjunctive is also common, but does not occur in main clauses; it Cor Mixt Samedan / Chapella Famiglia Erni in nominalised verb phrases and a number of other environments. The imperative is used to give orders or, more generally, to say to the listener that they should bring about the action.
As such, the subject is always in the second person and can be safely omitted where the number distinction is not important.
The imperative is polite enough that it can be safely used with social peers, though not superiors. To some degree the choice of aspect used with the imperative depends on the verb: general states are mostly used with the imperfective, whereas specific actions are more usually used with the perfective.
The conditional is used to express possibility; unsusprisingly, though, it is mainly used for the consequent of conditional expressions, which are discussed in the Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina section. There are two negatives in Kataputi: the ordinary negative ta and the emphatic negative kimi. These are particles that can be used with any form of verb, and which immediately precede it:. Though it does not strictly negate a sentence, the determiner or attributive kizigi 'none of ' is used to indicate the negation or absence of a nominal which is always declined in the singular :.
Both are discussed in the Transformations section. Kataputi postpositions govern the oblique case. The postposition comes last, immediately preceded by the noun, itself preceded by any modifiers. There are no postpositions that apply specifically to time, and spatial equivalents are used instead. The guiding metaphor is Face To Face - Tennessee Ernie Ford - Amazing Grace: 40 Treasured Hymns events move forward through time, through their circumstances; the most common examples are given below:.
In this section, following the style of Zompist, transformations are described in a simplified notation with examples. The passive in Kataputi works somewhat differently to that of accusative languages.
A transitive sentence can be turned into a passive simply by deleting the subject:. This transformation is important for Baba ORiley - Pete Townshend - The Genuine Scoop sentences, which is discussed below. The condition of a conditional expression is put in the subjunctive mood, and the consequent in the conditional mood; either of these can be negated with either ta or kimi.
The conjunction hi precedes each of these it essentially Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina the work of both English "if" and "then". Relative clauses follow SOV word order in the same way as main clauses, although one argument of the verb is always deleted. A relative clause immediately precedes its head noun, which is itself declined as appropriate for its syntactic role:. If the relative clause is intransitive, the attributive may be used instead of a full relativised form.
In many cases, attributives are better translated into English as adjectives, but not always:. Nominal subordination makes use of the subjunctive mood. A full sentence can be made to behave as a noun phrase, including as subject or object of another verb.
While indirect quotations use the subjunctive, directly quoted speech uses a special quotative particle simi. In this type of construction the quotation generally comes first in the sentence, and is always followed directly by simi ; it is considered an intransitive sentence and so the speaker takes the absolutive case.
The simplest way of asking a question in Katapaki is with the particle gawhich is placed after the verb. Formations with ga generally presuppose a positive answer. To form a question that presupposes a negative, the same construction is used but with the negating particle ta preceding the verb. The emphatic negative kimi can be used instead to express a mere trace of doubt, or to ask for support. Where the answer is uncertain, it is possible to reply using the subjunctive mood of the verb from the question.
These do not move around in the sentence; they simply take the place of the referent, declining as appropriate. These examples also serve to illustrate two points on the use of possession in Kataputi. Firstly, possessive prefixes can attach to the interrogative pronouns.
Secondly, the third person masculine singular prefix is the default for an inalienably possessed noun Chasing The Bird (New Take 2) - Charlie Parker - Charlie Parker Memorial Vol. 2 the possessor is uncertain or indefinite - the exceptions are female body parts, where the Tschlin* - Salüd Da LEngiadina equivalent is used.
A famous chief was once imprisoned by his enemies in a hut without any door or roof-opening, and left to die of starvation. As he sat gloomily on the ground, the chief saw a little mouse running across the hut.
久石 譲* - Birth, Warthog - Are You A Functioning Human In A Functioning World?, De Ol Arks A-Moverin - Jimmie Rodgers - Twilight On The Trail / When The Spirit Moves You, Yoü And I - Lady Gaga - Born This Way